This wicked problem is rooted in historic disruptions to co-adapted agro-pastoral systems. Introduction of agricultural growth policies by centralised governance resulted in temporal and spatial scale mismatches with the complex and dynamic East African environment, which subsequently contributed to soil exhaustion, declining fertility and increased soil erosion. Coercive policies of land use, privatisation, sedentarisation, exclusion and marginalisation led to a gradual erosion of the indigenous social and economic structures. Combined with the inability of the new nation-states to provide many of the services necessary for re developing the social and economic domains, many communities are lacking key components enabling sustainable adaptation to changing internal and external shocks and pressures. Exemplary is the absence of growth in agricultural productivity and livelihood options outside of agriculture, which prohibits the absorption of an increasing population and pushes communities towards overexploitation of natural resources. This further increases social and economic pressures on ecosystems, locking agro-pastoral systems in a downward spiral of degradation.
Barriers to modern contraceptive methods uptake among young women in Kenya: a qualitative study
From the air the forests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo DRC stretch as far as the eye can see, broken only by distant, shining ribbons of rivers and streams. Dense, deep, seemingly impenetrable, the forests of the Central African region extend over mn hectares, inspiring awe and sometimes dread among residents and visitors, and providing refuge for everything from rare and endangered plants and animals to ferocious militias accused of brutal crimes against humanity.
It is difficult to imagine that such vast ancient woodlands are at risk of extinction.
On the other hand, women in Kenya can become more productive if Political commitment is the most important ingredient to addressing for calculating infant and under-five mortality rates, the direct method requires each child’s date of.
Cattani, E. Merino, and V. Long-term monitoring of precipitation is thus essential, and satellite-based precipitation products can help in coping with the relatively sparse rain gauge ground networks of this area of the world. However, the complex topography and the marked geographic variability of precipitation in the region make precipitation retrieval from satellites problematic and product validation and intercomparison necessary. Six state-of-the-art monthly satellite precipitation products over East Africa during the —09 time frame are evaluated.
Eight areas clusters are identified by investigating the precipitation seasonality through the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre GPCC climatological gauge data. Seasonality was fully reproduced by satellite data in each of the GPCC-identified clusters. Not surprisingly, complex terrain mountain regions in particular represents a challenge for satellite precipitation estimates, as demonstrated by the standard deviations of the six-product ensemble.
A further confirmation comes from the comparison between satellite estimates and rain gauge measurements as a function of terrain elevation. The 3B42 product performs best, although the satellite—gauge comparative analysis was not completely independent since a few of the products include a rain gauge bias correction. Multidisciplinary studies and operational applications to water cycle and water management stimulate the exploitation of satellite precipitation estimates SPEs thanks to the growth of long-term 10 years or longer , space-based datasets.
Satellite precipitation real-time and rapid update products also enter the assimilation schemes of numerical weather prediction NWP models, contributing to improve short-range precipitation forecasts of extreme rainfall Michaelides et al. Moreover, precipitation drives the accuracy of the output of hydrological models to a large extent Thiemig et al.
The high spatial and temporal resolution and the continuous, timely, and public availability of satellite datasets are essential requisites for downstream predictions with enough lead time to implement management and response actions, especially in poorly gauged basins Serrat-Capdevila et al.
Most useful dating method in east africa
Now that you have an understanding of living primates’ morphology and behavior, it is time to learn about the origins of primates. Fossils are at the center of the study of ancestral primates. Animal fossils provide insight into morphology and behavior of ancient organisms while plant fossils help paleoanthropologists reconstruct ancient environments paleoecology. One thing to keep in mind is that, “the fossil record is highly skewed in favor of organisms that died and were preserved in calm seas, estuaries, tidal flats, or the deep ocean floor where there are few scavengers and little disruption of layers ” Panell There are multiple ways that fossils form.
Permineralization, or petrification, is the most common process.
independent time-scales for many East African and other volcanic most used and most useful method in rocks within the age range m.y.- 25 m.y.
This lists the logos of programs or partners of NG Education which have provided or contributed the content on this page. Leveled by. Archaeology is the study of the human past using material remains. These remains can be any objects that people created, modified, or used. Portable remains are usually called artifact s. Artifacts include tools, clothing, and decorations.
Android Marches on East Africa
Dating techniques are procedures used by scientists to determine the age of rocks, fossils, or artifacts. Relative dating methods tell only if one sample is older or younger than another; absolute dating methods provide an approximate date in years. The latter have generally been available only since Many absolute dating techniques take advantage of radioactive decay , whereby a radioactive form of an element decays into a non-radioactive product at a regular rate.
Others, such as amino acid racimization and cation-ratio dating, are based on chemical changes in the organic or inorganic composition of a sample. In recent years, a few of these methods have come under close scrutiny as scientists strive to develop the most accurate dating techniques possible.
East Africa experienced in the –11 time period some of the worst This region experienced in the –11 time frame some of the worst droughts to date, culminating in the high-impact drought in responsible for the creation of several of East Africa’s largest lakes as Satellite datasets and methods.
Eastern Africa consists largely of plateaus and has most of the highest elevations in the continent. The two most striking highlands are in Ethiopia and Kenya, respectively, where large areas reach elevations of 6, to 10, feet 2, to 3, metres. Twin parallel rift valleys that are part of the East African Rift System run through the region. Between the two rift valleys lies a plateau that comprises most of Uganda and western Tanzania and includes Lake Victoria.
The volcanic massif of Kilimanjaro , the highest mountain in Africa, reaches 19, feet 5, metres in northeastern Tanzania. The Horn of Africa , a major peninsular extension of the African mainland into the Arabian Sea , contains the vast lowland coastal plains of Somalia. Precipitation also is affected by varying elevation: Uganda, Tanzania, and western Kenya receive plentiful rainfall, while Somalia, eastern Ethiopia, and northeastern Kenya receive far less. The grasslands of Tanzania and Kenya are renowned for their wildlife, in particular large migratory herds of ungulates e.
Monkeypox is a viral zoonosis a virus transmitted to humans from animals with symptoms similar to those seen in the past in smallpox patients, although it is clinically less severe. With the eradication of smallpox in and subsequent cessation of smallpox vaccination, it has emerged as the most important orthopoxvirus. Monkeypox occurs in Central and West Africa, often in proximity to tropical rainforests.
Human monkeypox was first identified in humans in in the Democratic Republic of the Congo then known as Zaire in a 9-year-old boy in a region where smallpox had been eliminated in Since then, most cases have been reported from rural, rainforest regions of the Congo Basin, particularly in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where it is considered to be endemic. In Nigeria experienced the largest documented outbreak, 40 years after the last confirmed case.
Sea surface temperatures across the WIO are declining. This widespread cooling coupled with the onset of the SE monsoon winds marks the end of the bleaching season in the region The Indian It aims to support conservation, resource use, and management decisions by identifying ecosystems most at risk Coastal communities in eastern Africa are increasingly using sustainable approaches to manage marine resources to both improve the ecological status of their local environments and secure livelihoods.
Sharks have become extremely rare in East Africa. Underwater surveys on reefs in Tanzania, Comoros, Madagascar and Mozambique to assess population densities of large reef associated fishes recorded no A wide range of reef fishes aggregate in large numbers to spawn, including many species from highly valued food fish families.
Ways of Recording African History
Sterkfontein is a cave system that has been excavated by palaeontologists and archaeologists since , when the first hominid fossil was found here. Palaeoanthropology is the scientific study of hominid fossils and their cultural material and origins. Sterkfontein has produced some of the most famous hominid fossils in the world, together with a range of other fossils of animals and plants.
The site has a very high concentration of fossils — the highest in the Cradle of Humankind — which, as a whole, has produced more fossils of early hominids than any other site on Earth. Sterkfontein has also yielded stone artefacts that are up to almost 2-million years old, and are the oldest dated stone tools in Southern Africa. Palaeontologist Dr Robert Broom began to recover fossils from lime mining activities at Sterkfontein in
) is particularly useful for answering topographic questions of migration and route including palaeoclimatology, are most useful for testing dating regimes and The dates of the relevant non-African lineages, estimated by this method, were ) is consistent with the new dated fossil finds of early AMH in East Africa.
Our results support a complex process for the evolution of H. Based on the available fossils, H.
Please click this link to download the chapter. Some of the beliefs and institutions of the past may seem alien to us, others may also seem too familiar. But in either case, when we study the people of the past, what we are really learning about is the rich diversity of human experience. The study of history, however, is the study of the beliefs and desires, practices and institutions of human beings.
African history is the study of the past institutions and cultures of the people who live in Africa. The economic, political and social activities of the people who had once lived in Africa are studied under African history.
East Africa is one of the most active geological areas in the world, which has sculpted the region with a distinct topography. In this study, it is specifically used to describe the interlinking of soils and vegetation by investing in soil conservation methods, allowing a sustainable Issue Date: October
Chami Felix A. In: Journal des africanistes , , tome 72, fascicule 2. This paper attempts to provide evidence for the relationship that existed between East Africa and the Middle East from about the beginning of the first millennium BC to the mid-second millennium AD. The paper brings together written and archaeological evidence showing that, in different time periods, both cultural and economic links existed between the two regions to varying degrees depending on the balance of power around the Red Sea and in the north Indian Ocean.
There are reports of individuals from the Greco-Roman world and from the Middle East who claimed to have visited and lived in East Africa. Inversely, for the later periods, East African influence can be shown to have extended to the Middle East. Recent archaeological discoveries on the coast of Tanzania corroborate these written reports by uncovering ancient settlements linked by trade to the Middle East and as far north as the Mediterranean world. The period of the Swahili culture was probably the pinnacle for such links between the Arab world and East Africa.
The Swahili people identified themselves with Islam and their leaders struggled to link their royal lines with families from the Middle East. The great wealth of the Swahili world between and ad was due to such links which created stability in the region and expanded commerce. Journal des Africanistes 72 2 : 21 -M.
A sudden surge in smart-phone adoption in Kenya has been joined by a huge wave of application development efforts, with goals ranging from connecting citizens with health information to delivering organic-farming advice. Over the past year, Hersman has been developing iHub , an organization devoted to bringing together innovators and investors in Nairobi. The winner, Medkenya, developed by two entrepreneurs, offers health advice and connects patients with doctors.
Its developers have also formed a partnership with the Kenyan health ministry, with a goal of making health-care information affordable and accessible to Kenyans. In recent years, Kenya has spawned two wildly successful mobile platforms.
Chronological order and location of the most ancient relics of reduced iron ore in the world Eastern Niger alone has yielded nearly half the dates prior to B.C., This revela- tion is an important contribution to the study of African iron The study of the methods of production of various iron-producing societies.
We’re open! Book your free ticket in advance. Reconstructions of Homo erectus based on fossils from different locations. There is a lot of variety between individuals, which may be accounted for by the species having existed for so long and over such a wide area. The extinct ancient human Homo erectus is a species of firsts. It was the first of our relatives to have human-like body proportions, with shorter arms and longer legs relative to its torso.